Introduction to SQL

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SQL Definitions

Data - Data, in simplest terms, can be facts related to an object. For example, your name and birthdate are data related to you.

Database - Any collection of data, regardless of how big or small. Example, a telephone directory or list of friends on Facebook are considered databases.

Database Management System (DBMS) - A tool that enables a user to access and manipulate a database. An example of a DBMS is TOAD.

Structured Query Language (SQL) - SQL is sometimes pronounced as "Sequel". SQL is a programming language used to talk to databases.  It is used for creating, retrieving, updating, and deleting data in databases (C.R.U.D.).

SQL Database Types

  • Oracle
  • Microsoft SQL
  • SQL Server
  • MySQL
  • PostgreSQL
  • BigData
  • IBM DB2
  • SQLite
  • mongoDB
  • MariaDB

Alamo Colleges District's Banner database is Oracle, however, we do utilize different types of databases.

SQL DBMS

DBMS Applicatioms

  • TOAD
  • SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS)
  • Oracle SQL Developer
  • MySQL SQL Workbench
  • many others...

Alamo Colleges District has a license for TOAD.

Types of DBMS

There are several different types of DBMS, to include the following:

  • Hierarchical DBMS - Data is organized into a tree-like structure. Think of a tree with nodes (records) and branches (fields).
  • Relational DBMS -  Data is organized in the form of tables. This is the most popular DBMS type.
  • Network DBMS - Data is organized into graphs and many-to-many relationships are supported.
  • Object Oriented DBMS - Data is stored in the form of objects with attributes or classes.

TOAD is a relational DBMS.

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